Учебное пособие Москва Издательство мгту им. Н. Э. Баумана 2014 г




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Essential Vocabulary to text 3A


accept v

accounting n

beneficial a

borrowing fund
to carry on

circumstances n

consequences n

to convert into cash
cost-push inflation

demand-pull inflation

disposable adj

dissuade v

earnings n

to entail

to experience

to face

to fall in value

fiscal drag

forecasting

general price level n

income rise n

index-linked

investment n

insurmountable adj

interest rate

likely adj

margin n
to pay income tax

persistent rise

poverty trap

profit n

purchasing power n

push up v

reduction in sales

result in v

saving \ s n

state benefits

supplement v

tax bracket

to tend to

terms of prices

trade union

unadjusted



принимать

бухгалтерский учет

выгодный

фонд заимствований
продолжать. вести

обстоятельства

последствия

обратить в наличные деньги
инфляция издержек (вызванная ростом издержек производства)
инфляция спроса

доступный для использования

отговаривать, разубеждать

доход, сбережение

вызвать, повлечь за собой

испытывать

столкнуться

падать в цене

финансовый тормоз

прогнозирование

общий уровень цен

повышение дохода

подлежащий индексации

капиталовложение, инвестирование

непреодолимый

процентная ставка

вероятный

маржа, предел (напр. доходности) бирж. остаток, разница

платить подоходный налог

постоянное повышение

западня бедности

прибыль, доход, выгода

покупательская способность

поднимать, увеличивать

снижение продаж

приводить к чему-либо

сбережения, экономия

государственные пособия

дополнять, добавить

категория налогообложения

иметь тенденцию, склонность

уровень цен

профсоюз

неурегулированный


Module 4

Economic Growth

The Object. Object Clauses

The Sequence of Tenses

The Attribute. Attributive Clauses

Phrasal verbs: coincide with; lead to/up; place on/in/with/; follow on/out; throw up/out/ of; throw away/ on.

Exercises

  1. Put the questions in the reported speech.

Every person wanted to know

1. Does a growing economy mean a developing economy?

2. Are many changes in economy an integral part of growth?

3. Will firms decline as their profit falls?

4. How long has the country pbeen producing new goods?

5. What can encourage the development of businesses?

6. Could governments help promote economy growth by increasing their own expenditure?

7. Do small enterprises have any support from the government at the time of financial default?


2. Say the sentences in reported speech.

1. I'm going to work in Spain next year.

  1. I work for a small publishing company.

  2. I'm their marketing manager.

  3. The company has opened the subsidiary in Barcelona.

  4. It's been very successful.

  5. I've been chosen to run a new office in Madrid.

  6. I don't have much time to enjoy myself.

  7. I haven't had lunch with a friend for ages.

  8. I'm studying Spanish in the evenings.

  9. I hope my friends will come and visit me in Madrid.

  10. I went there last week with my secretary.

  11. We didn't have much time for sightseeing.

  12. I have to get back to work now.

3 a) Tony is being interviewed for a job. Look at the interviewer's notes and Tony's answers, then put questions.

  1. Age? How old are you?

  2. Live locally?

  3. Address?

  4. When/leave school?

  5. Which /school/go?

  6. Work/now?

  7. Who/work for?

  8. How long?

  9. Enjoy/present job?

  10. Why/want/leave?

b) After the interview Tony told his friends what he had been asked. Mind the correct word order in the clause.

  1. She asked me how old I was.

  2. She asked me...

4. Rewrite the sentences beginning in the way shown.

  1. "Which company is looking for a good salesman?" asked Tom.

Tom asked (me) which company was looking for a good
salesman.

  1. "Does your organization need people for a short period of time?"

asked Ann.

Ann asked

3. "What do the customers like in the company: prices or service?" -
asked Jenifer.

Jenifer asked

4. "How often do you take part in the International Trade Fairs?"
asked the company's guest.

The guest wanted to know

5. "Do you have an appointment?" asked clerk.

The clerk asked

6. "Have you seen the file with our new contract?" asked the manager his secretary.

The manager wondered

7. "What kinds of advertisements do you consider to be the most
effective? » asked a reporter.

A reporter asked

8. "Is the full set of goods displayed in the company?" asked
Richard a travel agent.

Richard asked

9. "When can I see the production manager?" Charles asked the
receptionist.

Charles asked

5. Translate the sentences with object clauses.

1. The director was sure the changes were going in a positive direction. 2. The lecture thought the students had little knowledge of digital electronics. 3. Some banks believe that IMF are responsible for poverty in the Third world. 4. Few people think it in their power to take control over their future. 5. There is a good reason to believe this technology will find a wide application.

6. Translate the sentences with attributive clause.

1. These farmers are the people that the authorities helped to start their business. 2. This company, which is now 105 years old, produces very popular goods. 3. All that is required is well-coordinated technical efforts. 4. The banks decreased their workforces, which meant that a lot of people had to look for work. 5. The most important problem is poverty, which is becoming threat for political stability. 6. The telephone, which we all have now, was invented more than 100 years ago. 7. The components the factory manufactures optimize the economy in this field. 8. Achievements in this technology affect the quality of the products people buy. 9. The document contained some points the deputies didn’t agree with.

7. Different types of clauses. Translate the sentences paying attention to conjunctions.

1. Once the agreement was reached it was confirmed in writing. 2. As soon as the chairman was elected he offered a new plan. 3. As the economy is growing the country is developing. 4. Hardly had they left the house, when the rain started. 5. As competition has grown in all industries, planning has become a necessity. 6. The time for action is now, for tomorrow it may be too late. 7. There are plenty of things which the authorities must do before serious negotiations. 8. The activities that must be dealt with by an engineering manager are important. 9. Whatever the form of government a nation may have it must be connected with the healthy of economy. 10. No matter what business you are in, you must create successful environment. 11. As labor costs continue to rise the robots will become more creative. 12. As soon as the crisis broke out newspapers reduced frequency and volume. 13. We found in the newspaper everything which interested us. 14. There is a company, whose name is unknown, that sells various computer facilities.

8. Choose the correct phrasal verb in an appropriate form to complete each sentence (coincide with; lead to/up; place on/in/with; follow on; throw up/out of/ away on).

  1. The students in this college are taking course __________a degree.

  2. The government ________ another tax ______cigarettes.

  3. If you don't keep your accounts straight ─ serious debt could .

  4. Don't you education by leaving now.

  5. The opening ceremony ________the worst storm in this century.

  6. I wish some money ____________this bank.

  7. The newspapers faithfully reported the events that _______the Minister's dismissal.

  8. I have had my order this bookstore for 3 months, but there is still no sign of the books.

  9. The serious fire at the factory ________ 2,000 men and women _______ work.

  10. Why did you ______your money_____ such a risky way to get interest?


9. Before you read the text below, answer the following questions:

a) What is the difference before developed and developing countries?

b) Why should a country increase efficiency of labour?

c) In which case does the standard of living in the country improve?

d) Could you name the products which are popular at present and which used to be popular some time ago?
Read and translate the text using Essential Vocabulary and any other dictionary.

Text 4A

Economic Growth

As a nation's economy grows, it is able to produce more goods and services each year. The value of national output is measured by the national income. Therefore, economic growth is usually termed as the rate at which the national income of a country grows in real terms. This means the rate of growth of national income, after allowance has been made for inflation. Governments seek the fastest possible economic growth without incurring undesirable side - effects such as inflation. Increases in those factors which create injections into the circular flow (export sales, investment and government expenditure) increase the level of economic activity which, if sustained, leads to economic growth. It follows from this that governments can help promote economic growth by increasing their own expenditure when appropriate. They can also do so by attempting to create an environment where exports can flourish and businesses consider investment worthwhile.

Such economic growth is a major objective of governments since a rise in the standard of living of the country's people should follow. This is, however, only true if national income has risen even when inflation has been allowed for, otherwise it means that the price of the nations output has increased rather than quantity. It is also important that the growth of the population has not exceeded the growth of national income; otherwise, the additional output will have been swallowed up amongst the extra people. It is necessary for real national income per head to rise to increase the general standard of living. And even under these circumstances some groups in society (for example, pensioners) may not share in the increased prosperity because their incomes rise less quickly than those of other groups, notably those in full ─ time employment.

A growing economy means a developing economy: change is an integral part of growth. Some firms will decline as their products become obsolete or go out of fashion while others thrive as their goods or services become popular and as they innovate new advanced ideas. Opportunities are regularly thrown up as markets are created by the additional spending power that is placed in hands of the public. Talented and perceptive managers can take advantage of the chances created -growth provides a framework for success.

As with all opportunities, some businesses will benefit more than offers the favorable economic environment. All products have a life cycle, though the length of the cycle may vary. Firms with products at the end of their cycle may benefit little from rising styles. In contrast, new product which coincides with a strong period of economic growth has a distinct advantage. It is this factor which partly explains the rapid increase in popularity and sales of Compact Disc players in the late 1980s. Most businesses prefer periods of economic growth not only because of buoyant sales but also because tax rates can fall. Since governments have to support the less unemployed at a time when tax revenues are booming they can afford to cut rates. It also offers the opportunities to improve the infrastructure of the economy by building new roads, rail links, airports, etc. Both factors can encourage the development of all businesses.

Exercises

1. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What is measured by the national income?

  2. What is necessary for the growth of the national income?

  3. What can increase the level of economic activity?

  4. What leads to economic growth?

  5. How can government promote economic growth?

  6. Is the growth of the population important for national economy?

  7. What does the expression "standard of living" mean?

  8. What points to a growing economy?

9. Why do businesses prefer the period of economic growth?

10. What products have distinct advantages?

2. Match each word or word combination with its definition


  1. to inject into industry

  1. to participate in, to deal with

  1. to promote

  1. to reduce interest rates

  1. a spending power

  1. to be no longer in demand

  1. to exceed

  1. to bring into existence

  1. to become obsolete

  1. to grow in profitability or wealth

  1. to thrive

  1. to get something to one's advantage, interest, profit

  1. to create

  1. to be beyond a certain limit, to be greater than

  1. to benefit from

  1. a purchasing power

  1. to cut rates

  1. to increase the demand

  1. to share in

  1. to give money to a plant


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