Учебное пособие Москва Издательство мгту им. Н. Э. Баумана 2014 г




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Useful language


The subject matter of my presentation is………………………

I have chosen this subject because…………..

My aim is to ………………..

I have considered, analyzed…………………….. because…………

Key words that you need to know well:

Analyze, argue, assess, compare, contrast, define, describe, discuss, enumerate, evaluate, explain, illustrate, identify, interpret, justify, list, outline, prove, relate, review, show, state, summarize, trace.

Sequencing ideas: firstly, secondly…... then, next, after that, lastly, in conclusion, finally, first of all

Expressing contrast: but, however, nevertheless, yet

Stating results: thus, as a result, so.

Providing reasons: in order to, so as not to, so that.

Adding further support: besides, also, moreover.

Concluding statements: in summary, to sum up, to conclude.


Essential Vocabulary to Text 1A


amount n

количество

assets n

активы, средства, капитал, фонды. имущество

available a


имеющийся в наличии, пригодный, доступный, пригодный


balance of payments

платежный баланс

benefit n /v

выгода, прибыль, пособие

извлекать пользу, приносить прибыль, получать выгоду

buoyant a

повышательный, оживленный

cause v

вызывать, быть причиной, служить поводом, побуждать

come across smb /smth

случайно встретить кого-л., что-л, натолкнуться на кого-л., что-л.

competitive a

конкурентоспособный

consumer n

потребитель

contribute to

вносить вклад, влиять

cost of labour

стоимость труда

customer n

покупатель, клиент

decline v

уменьшаться, снижаться

define v

определять

depend on

зависеть от кого-л., ч-л., полагаться на, доверять

economic environment

экономическая среда

economic forces

экономические факторы

enterprise n

предприятие, предпринимательство, предприимчивость

entity n

организация, фирма, экономический объект, хозяйственное подразделение

expenditure (s) n

расходы, расходование, затраты

hire n/ v

наем/ нанимать

income n

доход (ы), прибыль, поступления

interest rate

процентная ставка

labour n

труд, работа, рабочие, рабочая сила

manufacture v

производить, изготовлять

monetary a

монетарный, кредитно-денежный, валютный

overseas rival

зарубежный (внешний) конкурент

private enterprise

частное предприятие

public enterprise

Государственное (общественное) предприятие

rate of inflation

уровень инфляции

rate of taxation

ставка налогового обложения

raw material

сырье

relate to

иметь отношение к чему-л.

result from


происходить в результате (чего-л.)


result in

приводить к (чему-л.)

retail chain


сеть розничной торговли

ride out

выйти из затруднительного положения, благополучно перенести (трудности)

rise (rose, risen) v

Повышать(-ся)

skilled labour

квалифицированный труд, квалифицированная рабочая сила

stock n\v

запас, резерв, фонд, акция

создавать запас, запасать

subject (a)

зависящий, зависимый, подчиненный

tax revenue(s)

налоговые поступления

undercut prices

понижать цены

understate v

преуменьшать, занижать



Module 2
Employment and Unemployment



Perfect tenses (Simple)
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs
Conjunctions: Both… and…, either… or…, neither… nor…
Exercises
1. Translate into Russian paying attention to the time modifiers used with Present Perfect tens. Put question to each sentence.
1. Their way of life has changed over the centuries. 2. We have made big progress in the education in the last two years. 3. I have not heard from him since he left. 4. Tom has been away from university for two weeks. 5. Over the last 10 years the Japanese market place has grown from 8% to 41%. 6. Great changes have taken place in the world during the past 30 years. 7. Over the past twenty years the banking systems of most developed countries have changed considerably. 8. He has been in electronics for most of his life. 9. Since 1946 Congress has continued to pass laws giving Presidents more power to deal with economic problems. 10. At the present time the robot has taken over only those jobs where humans can not or don’t want to work.11. Real wages have been cut in half in the last 10 years.12. Much has been said recently about air pollution and its effect on the environment.13. Some housing projects have been planned recently by local authorities. 14. Some of the new ideas have been put into practice up to now. 15. The hotels have had an online booking system since 1996. 16. Nine percent of the work force has been out of work for more than two years. 17. A British lead in this technology has not been lost yet. 18. British constitution is based on hundreds of years of legislative acts, court decisions and customs that have never been put together into one document.
2. Translate the sentences into English
1. Эта компания действует в этой области уже в течение ряда лет. (be active) 2. Стоимость электроэнергии всегда имела свойство возрастать. (tend) 3. Цены значительно изменились за прошедшие два года. (change) 4. Я здесь нахожусь уже неделю. 5. Эти промышленные системы уже окупили инвестиционные средства. (pay off) 6. Соединенные штаты уже давно являются всемирным лидером в области технологий. (be the leader) 7. Пособие по безработице выплатили всем, кого уволили. (unemployment benefit, dismiss) 8. Эта авиалиния находится в собственности компании с 2005 года. (own) 9. Банки всегда были и остаются крупными потребителями информационных технологий. (be a big user) 10. За последние 20 лет эта компания значительно выросла в результате приобретений. (grow)

3. Translate the sentences with Past Perfect and Future Perfect
1. News had traveled about the world long before newspapers appeared. 2. By 1940 the number of workers had almost doubled. 3. After two years in office things didn’t go the way the President had planned. 4. By the time she leaves next month, she will have been with the firm for 22 years. 5. The price of this book will have doubled by the time it reaches the local bookstore. 6. Until this year the firm had had 16 years of profit growth. 7. During the crisis Japanese companies faced difficulties that they had never before experienced. 8. I’ll be back at five. I hope you will have had a good rest by that time. 9. By the time you receive this letter I will have finished my final exams. 10. Though the company had been established primarily for railroad construction, it diversified its activities later.

4. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using the correct form of the verbs in brackets.



1. This bicycle (be) in our family for fourteen years. My farther (use) it for the first five years, my brother (ride) it for the next five and I (have) it for the last four. 2. Information technology (change) not only the nature of markets, but it also (break down) the barriers of geography and time. 3. For a long time Toyota (be) a very successful Japanese car manufacturer. 4. My son is still at the High School. He (not start) work yet. He (be) at the High School for six years; before that he (spend) five years at the Primary School. 5. I hope they (repair) this road by the time we come back next summer. 6. I (arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (be told) that England was foggy all year round, so I (not be) surprised to find that it was raining. 7. The Human Resources Department (invest) a lot of money in training by the end of this year. 8. You (book) your hotel room yet. Well, I (wrote) to the hotel last week but they (not answer) yet. 9. News (travel) around the world long before newspapers appeared. 10. Each of the 13 departments (run) by the secretary appointed by the President. 11. Computers now (use) to compile information on numerous social problems. 12. Much (say) recently about air pollution. 13. These services (pay for) in full by the end of the last year. 14. Real wages (cut) in half in the last 10 years.

5. Complete the sentences using a comparative or superlative form of the adjectives.



1. Natural resources and energy are getting (expensive). 2. We usually finish work (early). 3. The central regions of the country are _ industrialized than the northern parts. 4. Wholesalers sell large quantities of a product to retailers who sell much (small) quantity to customers. 5. Consumers are interested in (cheap) goods of (high) quality 6. “(Hard) thing about English is the prepositions and adverbs”, students usually say. 7. I can remember the days when (good) computer was (big) computer. 8. Our plant with (little) automation and (little) investment is turning out (good) quality products. 9. Japan now has the third (large) military budget in the world. 10. The aerospace industry is by far (large) user of titanium. 11 The main trend in our time is towards a (healthy) political climate in the world. 12. Bosses today are (young) and (close) in age to the workers they supervise.


6. Translate into Russian the sentences with ‘the larger….the more’.



1. The higher a person’s income, the higher the tax rate. 2. The more your employees know about the salary programme, the better. 3. The more a country produces, the richer it is. 4. The more competition, the lower the prices. 5. Your body is the baggage you must carry through life. The more excess baggage, the shorter the trip. 6. The more the rich steal, the poorer are the poor. 7. The healthier the economy is, the lower the unemployment rate. 8. The more prosperous the country is, the fewer problems it has.

7. Translate the sentences with various types of comparison.



1. In Great Britain ten years ago the 20 highest paid directors received as much as 450 average manual workers. 2. Their production costs are as much as 70% less than US costs. 3. Youth unemployment in Britain has risen three times as fast as unemployment among the working population. 4. He employs as few people as possible and lets machines do the work. 5. As many as nine of the firm’s senior management started as drivers. 6. Red is the second most popular colour for cars in Britain. 7. About twice as many brown cars are sold as black cars in Britain. 8. Far fewer green cars are sold than red ones. 9. This fan isn’t as powerful as the other ones.

8. Translate the sentences into Russian. Before doing this, read the notes and memorize the words and expressions given there.



1. Goods are products which people either want or need. 2. Neither a parent company nor its overseas subsidiaries made profit due to the economic downturn. 3. He was neither for nor against the proposal of the Board of Directors. 4. A personnel manager serves not only the employer, but also acts in the interests of employees. 5. Students watching the videotaped lectures feel free to ask questions of both the tutor and each other. 6. Either heat or cold is a threat to about three-fourths of all control devices. 7. The standards for measuring a manager’s work are neither universal nor permanent. 8. When the Japanese achieve market leadership, they become defenders rather than attackers. Their defense strategy is to continue product development. 9. Top managers spend about 80% of their work time communicating with each other. Thus, a communication skill enables managers to hold meetings, make reports, etc. 10. A good manager involves as many people as he can in both work and decision-making. 11. Practical knowledge of both written and spoken English is essential for this job. 12. The department manager must demonstrate initiative as well as readiness to learn. 13. Why didn’t you ask for help, rather than trying to do it on your own? 14. They sell books as well as newspapers in this shop. 15. She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer.
Notes:

either… or – либо…либо; neither… nor… – ни…ни…; both… and…- и…и…; rather than…- а не…; thus – таким образом ; as well as – а также.

  1. Before you read the text below answer the questions.


a) What is the meaning of the word labour?

b) What do you understand by employment, unemployment, employee, employer?

c) Can you name any countries which have high level of unemployment?

d) What do you think is the social threat of unemployment?

e) Do you think that good education will help your employability?

Read and translate the text using Essential Vocabulary and any other dictionary.




Text IIA
Employment and Unemployment


Labour is the main resource in any enterprise and it is vitally important for a company to have flexible and well-trained workforce. Governments try to minimize the rate of unemployment. Workers will buy some of the output of business and so it is important that they should be in work to allow them to purchase the economy’s output. Unemployment also poses a social and economic threat to any nation.

The social threat is that the unemployed feel degraded and of no value to the society. The loss of a job may result in depression, stress or in some cases, crime. After long periods of being out of job, some people experience severe difficulties in rejoining the workforce.

In economic terms, the cost of lost output is immense. A ten percent rate of unemployment means that the potential output of one-tenth of the workforce has been lost to the society. In addition, those in employment pay taxes to support those out of work and the government has lost tax revenue from the unemployed.

There is no single measure of unemployment to assess the proportion of the workforce which is not in work. Indeed, most nations alter the way of measuring this key statistics from time

Predicting the impact of unemployment and controlling it are made more difficult by the fact various types of unemployment occur. Some types of unemployment pose a threat to economic stability.
Frictional Unemployment

We should not be too surprised that the business community expresses little concern about frictional unemployment. This type of unemployment is caused when people move between jobs. For example, a bricklayer may be unemployed for a few weeks while waiting for a suitable vacancy to appear.

A healthy economy will always exhibit some of this unemployment as workers move from one job to another.

Businesses favour such flexibility as they search for suitably skilled and qualified labour. This unemployment offers little threat to their wellbeing unless the interval between jobs becomes prolonged. Equally, the government only seeks to minimize the time spent searching for, or transferring to, the new place of employment.
Seasonal Unemployment

Like frictional unemployment, seasonable unemployment is not regarded as a major problem on a nation level. It regularly rises in the winter before declining again the following summer. For some local communities this can be a serious problem. Both business and government are prepared for it and its small-scale regularity means that it poses little or no problem.
Structural Unemployment

Of some concern is structural unemployment. It may occur because machinery replaces workers. It could be the result of consumers no longer wishing to buy certain products which are out of fashion.

Structural unemployment has some implication for business. Firstly, it may mean that some of the workers have outdated skills and this will require money on their retraining. Secondly, such workers realize that the type of job they had is no longer available. Thus, they are not spending as much as before and some firms will probably experience falling sales. Such unemployment will cause the government to introduce policies to make the problem less severe. For example, to support a declining industry or to increase the level of economic activity and thus demand from firms for labour.
Cycling Unemployment

Over time, all economies move through cycles during which the level of business activity fluctuates. Boom, with high spending, low unemployment and general prosperity, is followed by a slump in which prosperity declines and the level of unemployment rises. The intensity of such fluctuations in business activity may vary, but the general pattern continues.

Such cyclical unemployment is a major target of the government’s employment policy as it seeks to maintain a steady growth in the economy. Business find that such fluctuations in unemployment have considerable impact on their production and sales and make forward planning more difficult. The intensity and length of these cycles differ. As a recession begins, firms sometimes do not know how to adjust their output plans. To some degree, the decisions that they take help to determine future demand and sales.
Regional Unemployment

Some parts of every country are more prosperous that others. An indicator and cause of regional variations are called regional unemployment. Causes of such unemployment are complex, but in many areas they are linked to structural changes in the local economy.

Businesses tend to locate in more prosperous regions in order to be near to their most important market. The consequences of this can be costly: higher rents, salaries and increased transport costs. It is often difficult to distinguish between types of unemployment. However, it is important for both firms and governments appreciate the nature of unemployment so that they can take actions appropriate to the situation.

Frictional unemployment may require improvements, initiated by the government, so that employers with vacancies can communicate with unemployed workers.
Exercises
1. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What types of unemployment do you know? 2. Why is it important to decrease the rate of unemployment? 2. What does unemployment result in? 3. Why is it difficult to distinguish what kind of unemployment we deal with? 4. Why is it unprofitable to the government to have a big rate of unemployment? 5. Why is it necessary to understand the nature of unemployment? 6. What do you know about frictional unemployment? 7. When does seasonal unemployment rise and when does it decline? 8. Which types of unemployment cause the most negative effect on economy? 9. Where do businesses tend to locate? 10. What are the measures that the government uses to decrease the rate of unemployment?

2 (A). Look back at the text and find:

  • which adjectives go with: resource ,workforce, cost, difficulties, terms, revenue, statistic, unemployment, community, vacancy, economy, labour, products, implications, skills, industry, activity, prosperity, target, policy, growth, change, rents, actions, schemes;

  • which verbs go with: rate of unemployment, depression, severe difficulties, taxes, the proportion of workforce, environment of business, expenditure on retraining, the problem ,the level of economic activity, a steady growth, future demand , actions, improvements,


(B). Translate the collocations into Russian

3. Choose the correct phrasal verb in an appropriate form to complete each sentences. Translate the sentences.

(link to/up; wait on/for; work off/out; tend to/towards; be possessed by/off; transfer to/from; seek out)

1. How can we a really good person for this job? 2. Our family this city recently so I am now a job. 3. The rights in the property will be the present owner your family. 4. Land that this city should be turned into parks. 5. As a director he strong ability to manage and solve all problems. 6. His lectures on business dullness. 7. More and more countries in Europe are now integration. 8. Farther is still trying to his tax. 9. I hope to most of the urgent letters by tomorrow. 10. You must permission to enter the office. 11. His whole future the results the talks. 12. A common wall the main office the storehouse. 13. Arrangements are being made to the two firms, so as to reduce the competition. 14. He ______________your reply to our letter.
4. Match each word or word combination with its definition.

    1. fluctuations

    2. major resources




    1. prosperity

    2. a rent

    3. a steady growth

    4. a salary

    5. an output

    6. impact

    7. to vary

    8. to adjust

(a) to be not fixed; differ

(b) the effect of an increase that a certain

activity has upon the demand

(c) a monthly payment to an employee

(d) condition when the real income is constantly increasing

(e) money received by the owner of property

(f) a state of being rich

(g) to put right; to make suitable for

(h) things provided by nature or accumulated by people

(i) booms and slums when industrial activity rises and falls

(j) the total value of all produced goods



5. Choose the appropriate letter.


  1. Some types of unemployment;

    1. improve the environment of business

    2. threaten the environment of business

    3. change the environment of business




  1. Governments seek the rate of unemployment.

    1. to increase

    2. to lessen

    3. to minimize




  1. The enterprises having high structural unemployment will experience .

    1. falling sales

    2. stable sales

    3. rising sales




  1. A slump is a state of economy where .

    1. prosperity rises, unemployment declines

    2. unemployment rises, prosperity declines

    3. prosperity rises, unemployment rises




  1. Labour is a/an resource in any enterprise.

    1. additional

    2. necessary

    3. major




  1. Most companies pay taxes those out of work.

    1. to get rid of

    2. to feed

    3. to support
6. Choose proper words or word combination in the box to complete the sentences.




since he left school; to meet; depression; one-tenth; the recent economic survey; machinery; a considerable impact; in poor conditions; in more prosperous regions; to recruit


1. Unemployment may result in , stress or in some cases, crime. 2. __ has revealed a record slump in the graduate jobs market and a considerable cut in vacancies. 3. He has worked for the same company . 4. A 10 percent rate of unemployment means that the society has lost of the work force. 5. In some industries unemployment may occur because replaces workforce. 6. Most businesses find that such fluctuations in unemployment have on their production and sales. 7. Businesses tend to locate to break into the most important markets. 8. Many skilled and qualified employees refuse to work , and such a company may find it difficult to well-trained workforce, if they aren’t able their needs.


6. Translate into English.

1. Филиалы этой компании недавно объявили о наборе (recruitment) служащих. 2. Для некоторых местных предприятий сезонная безработица представляет серьезную проблему. 3. Кандидатов на вакантные должности (open position) набирают как в самой компании, так и за ее пределами. 4. За последнее время эта компания достигла значительных успехов, так как заботится о постоянном повышении профессионального уровня работников. 5. Правительства развитых стран контролируют уровень безработицы и стараются использовать различные способы ее снижения. 6. Региональная безработица может быть следствием структурных изменений в экономике региона или страны. 7. Пособие по безработице (unemployment benefit/dole) выплачивается только зарегистрированным безработным. 8. Сокращение избыточной (redundant) рабочей силы – одна из причин безработицы.

Read the text and answer the questions:


  1. What was economic situation like when the students applied for university?

  2. Could the graduates realize their ambitions?

  3. What opportunities do university graduates have?



Text II B
Degree of Despair for Children of the Slump


The class of 1995 was the students who applied for university at the height of an economic boom and graduated into recession. Three years ago, when they won their places at Kent University, interest rates were at their lowest for a decade, inflation was just over 4% and unemployment was still falling.

Today, anxiety has tarnished optimism and ambition that the thirty-seven “freshers” had when they studied at Keynes College, one of Kent’s four halls of residence. Only eleven of those who were reunited at their graduation last week have secured a permanent job. Sixteen are still looking for work, or have found temporary employment, while the others intend to continue with their studies.

Last week, a report by some of British’s biggest employers revealed a record slump in the graduate job market, with a 20% cut in vacancies and virtual freeze on salaries.

Like many of the 135, 000 graduates leaving College this year, Caroline Kirk, twenty-one, was disappointed. In spite of a good second-class honours degree in history, she has so far failed to find a job after three months of searching and fifty applications.

The idea of going to university was to improve your chances of being chosen for a good job. It’s difficult to keep a positive attitude when you get rejections, but you have to remember that you are one of thousands.

Read the text and answer the questions:


  1. Why is unemployment rate in the Czech Republic so low?

  2. Can this can be called a miracle and why?



Text II C
Unemployment in East Europe


Unemployment is an unwelcome novelty for East Europeans. Some former communist countries have much higher unemployment rates than others. After communism’s collapse in some Eastern European countries unemployment rates have indeed risen. When reforms began and state factories were exposed to the free market most people expected widespread redundancies. On the other hand, a high unemployment rate, if it is short-lived, is a good sign, a signal that restructuring was proceeding fast. In Poland, for example, 16% of the labour force is out of work, in Bulgaria the rate is 13%. Unemployed people can’t quickly find new work in the private sector. More than half the unemployed in East Europe have been out of work for a few years. A few countries have managed to keep unemployment rates low. The Czech Republic, for one, has a rate of only 3%. The Czech ‘employment miracle’ has several straightforward causes. Some, such as an income policy which ensured relatively low real wages, and special public-work programmes could be copied by other countries. Other Czech advantages are unique. They include the separation from Slovakia, where a lot of dying industries were situated, and a job-creating tourist boom centred in Prague.
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